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  1. The History of British India, vol. 1 - Online Library of Liberty
  2. Category: Classics
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This was a laborious route, and at the hazard of our lives, many times, performed. I was not only fatigued very much; but, had been in fear as to my ever climbing up, and knew not how to get down, when I had mounted two thirds of the way. My reception at Mr. I will explain how it was done; and I began to relate every particular at large. Nor is this all, madam. They were both very greatly amazed at my relation, and Mr.

We laughed the afternoon away in a charming manner, and when we had done, we all went to walk in the gardens. That I will, [Page ] and immediately proceeded in the following manner. This was the opinion of that great prelate, Dr. Beveridge, in his Private Thoughts, p. As St. This I will examine. Here Mr. For my part, Sir, Mr. Peter and St. I have Mr. Harcourt was [Page ] fond of me, and did every thing in his power to render the place agreeable. Picture 2. I am he that liveth, even tho' I was dead, and behold I am alive for evermore, Amen. And I have the keys of hell and of death.

It is a fine picture. Picture 3. It is a charming picture. Her picture. In the year 34 Mrs. Glorious women! Turner returns. Since Mr. It was a fine entertainment to hear her. Her thoughts and words were ever employed in promoting God's glory, her neighbour's benefit, and her own true welfare; and her hand very often, in giving [Page ] to the poor. She was very good and worthy.

Sometimes we rambled about the hills, and low adown the dales. Thus might the novel impiety come on. This is plain to a thorough and rational examination. Happy pair indeed! Down I went immediately. Virtue and charity is religion. Early in the morning, we went out with the hounds, and for half a dozen hours, had the dogs in full cry before us.

This was in hunting. Here is a plain and good religion. To this Mr. Paul [Page ] might reprove St. No contradiction in St. Mark's and St. John's account of the crucifixion. As to St. Mark and St. Matthew and St. If St. Mary accordingly departed. Does not this reconcile Mark's account with Matthew's? Do they not hurt the book? No age can counterfeit Cicero, Terence, St. Mark, St. John, St. Paul, no more than a counterfeit picture, medal, etc. I have nothing to object. Sic refert Philippus a Limborch. In the next place, St. Luke and St.

John, ver. This is evident to me. We drank and laughed till it was midnight. This was good indeed. This was news to me. Doleful tidings, how ye wound. My enquiries were all in vain. Many figures I beheld, but none I knew. She had heard I had been at Mrs. My friend, Mr. Good Tom Fleming. Remarks on Lord Nottingham's letter to Mr. This happened before our Lord years; after the flood, ; of the world Longevity of the Antediluvians. The excellent, the polite, the well-bred, the good and unfortunate Mrs.

O'Hara had a glorious fancy. What ruined Mrs. Ye are made to come upon the lip of the tongues: that is, Ye are become a bye-word even in the heathen gabble, among the babling nations where ye are in captivity. See Letter and Spirit ch. See Dr. Francis has done the whole. Francis renders them in the following manner — Again for Glycera I burn, And all my long forgotten flames return. The Reader will find this apology in the appendix to this life. Schaedius de diis. This is taken notice of by the prophet Jeremiah. Baruch 6. As to the breaking of the woman's cord, Dr. So in the Pharmaceutria of Theocritus.

Grotius on Deut. Vives notes on St. Spencer de Leg. And Fabricius, Bibliographia. We are forced to be frugal of our little power: but this is not applicable to the Deity. The governing power of the Deity is creating power. It is a mere farce. Penes me indeed. It was to be found only in his own head. This I have experimented. This great man, who wrote years before Homer: before Sanchoniatho; and before the Trojan war, was, as they inform us, an adept.

They had the bible, and could read it. Camden places Bows before Gretabridge. God is not only in heaven. He dwelleth in light that is unapproachable. So it appeared to me.

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I remember one time, when Dr. Nor can I forget the learned author of the Life of David. Quod principi placuit legis habet vigorem. This is the martyr. An account of cardinal Perron. Cardinal Perron was born in the year , Nov. He had been trained up in the reformed religion with great care; but went off to popery, on the preferments offered him by Henry III.

It was owing to the management of this cardinal de St. Account of Cardinal Baronius. Baronius was born, October 30, in the year , and died the 30th of June, , aged It is a prodigious work. Account of the centuries of Magdebourg. It is well done. Account of cardinal Bellarmine.

The History of British India, vol. 1 - Online Library of Liberty

There is not one article of popery tolerably well defended in the 4 volumes. It is to be lamented that we have but 16 of them. Of the edict of Nantz. The edict of Nantz was granted to the reformed by Henry the 4th, in the 9th year of his reign, of grace Leyde Cornelii Galli. He was born October 14, , and died at Saumur, the 16th of June, , aged This water is 27 yards in length, 12 in breadth, and generally 16 deep.

Category: Classics

By this means I made a convert of her. Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that his Spirit dwelleth in you? As Mrs. You will find them among other curious things in the appendix to this journal. We have full proof of creating, ruling intelligence. To me it is plain St. Manlius in locorum communium collectaneis. Matthew is an admirable thing. The great and good R. A call to the unconverted. Of Dr. Sykes's writings. Sykes is a divine. Chapman, Dr. Church, and Mr. Locke are excellent: that on liberty or power was too much even for Locke. It is an admirable thing.

Courcelles was born in the year , and died the 29th of May, , aged It is a vain attempt to unite parties. Every party is a church, and infallible in its own conceit. This was our Lord's direction. Here it is, gentlemen of the laity, as the doctors call us, and will have us to be an inferior tribe to them.

His excellent works are three large volumes in folio. Arnold was a learned, eloquent, and pious man. Of Dodwell and his writings. His works are the following books — 1. Current metal consumption can be cited, as one example among many, to demonstrate that present levels of use are not a feasible future for the United States or anyone else wishing to imitate this gaudy style.

The United States is a pseudo-Eden under seige.

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Nearly 85 percent of humanity lives outside the shiny garden. We are acting out an unreal fairy tale. A possible norm must replace the glittering exception as the objective of the great cultural quest. There isn't enough glass, there aren't enough coaches, for everyone to get the shoes and ride of Cinderella. There could be, easily, enough bamboo. For a thousand things, for 6 billion people; it is a feasible planetary norm.

Migration to margins: a sane response to urban sprawl. A number of recent books help demonstrate that the increases in energy consumption of industrial societies cannot continue. A cofunction of "hard energy paths" is the ever greater centralization and "implosion" that is a chief feature of our urban times.

Ironically, greater physical densities seem to increase social fragmentation and a drastic decline in human intimacy. The closer our bodies are jammed together, the more our spirits and families fall apart. The hope of appropriate technologists is that small technologies can help halt the great mi- gration to towns by making the modern village via- ble as a way of life, enriched, not destroyed, by a development scaled to local need and resource.

Bamboo's ample possible role in this decentraliza- tion is hinted at by the brief examination in this chapter of some pieces of its past. Freeman-Mitford's The Bamboo Carden is a fair sample of Western amazement in the face of so varied a use of a single resource, a remarkable cultural phenomenon without counterpart in European traditions.

It furnishes the framework of his house, and thatches the roof over his head, while it supplies paper for his windows, awnings for his sheds, and blinds for his veranda. His beds, tables, his chairs, his cupboards, his thousand and one small articles of furniture are made of it. Shavings and shreds of bamboo are used to stuff his pillows and mattresses. The retail dealer's measures, the carpenter's rule, the farmer's waterwheel and irrigation pipes, cages for birds, crickets, and other pets, vessels of all kinds, from the richly lacquered flower stands of the well-to-do gentleman down to the humblest utensils of the very poor all come from the same source.

These were supposedly originally made from bamboo. The role of bamboo in cultural acupuncture, the art of producing maxi- mal response through minimal force strategically applied at key points, is the meditation of these pages. Bambusa spinosa and Bambusa vulgaris , with thin walls and long internodes, were cut and seasoned in the dry months December-May , then split into strips 1 cm wide by. The inner and outermost portions of the culm wall were discarded: the inside as too weak, the skin as too slippery and hard to glue. Submerged in salt water ubiquity which he punts it along, his ropes, his mat-sails, and the ribs to which they are fastened, the palanquin in which the stately mandarin is borne to his office, the bride to her wedding, the coffin to the grave; the cruel instruments of the executioner, the lazy painted beauty's fan and parasol, the soldier's spear, quiver and arrows, the scribe's pen, the student's book, the artist's brush and the favorite study for his sketch; the musician's flute, mouth-organ, plectrum, and a dozen various instruments of strange shapes and still stranger sounds — in the making of all these, the bamboo is a first necessity.

Plaiting and wicker-work of all kinds, from the coarsest baskets and matting down to the delicate filigree with which porcelain cups are encased, are a common and obvious use of the fibre. The same material made into great hats like inverted baskets protects the coolie from the sun, while the laborers in the rice fields go about looking like animated haycocks in waterproof coats made of the dried leaves of bamboo sewn together.

See at the corner of the street a fortune teller attracting a crowd around him as he tells the future by the aid of slips of bamboo graven with mysterious characters and shaken up in a bamboo cup, and every man around him smoking a bamboo pipe. Sawale, a type of weave used for walls in the Philippines, was chosen. Panels were given a coat of glue liquid enough to soak well into the weave and another coat of glue mixed with fine soft-wood sawdust to even the surface, which was then sanded.

Performance was good, and three years after construction the skin showed no sign of deterioration in spite of severe weather conditions. Low in cost, requiring no complex machinery or construction techniques, bamboo was highly recommended by the experimenters as also useful for waterplanes and the landing apparatus of light planes because of its ability to absorb shock. A detailed report and tables comparing bamboo quite favorably with other materials used for conven- tional airplane skins is available in Hidalgo.

It consists of a number of hollow bamboo joints of various but selected lengths and thickness which are cut out below and hang down from a bamboo frame. Bamboo makes the heart beat fonder — at least an old tradition has it that lovers can be more loving with treatments of tabasheer see under 7. But the plant probably earns its most handsome price per pound in a fraudulent traffic described by Varmah: "The rhizome of Den- drocalamus ham if torn! In Japan, Pseudosasa japonica is known as metake or "arrow bamboo'' for the shafts made from its branches.

A very common ornamental, it was perhaps the earliest hardy oriental bamboo in- troduced into the United States around 1 , 20 and groves are widely available for those who have a strung but empty bow. Above all, arrows must be straight and light, so the wood of many bamboos can be made to shape them. In the Zen tradition archery is a mirror of the soul, its practice a physical discipline that hones the mind: "You are the target The more you try to learn how to shoot for the sake of hitting the goal, the less you will succeed. You have a much too willful will.

We master archers say: with the upper end of the bow the archer pierces the sky; on the lower end, as though attached to a thread, hangs the earth. If the shot is loosed with a jerk there is danger of the thread snapping. For the purposeful and violent people, the rift becomes final, and they arc left in the awful center between heaven and earth. The lamination of wood and bamboo in the bow may be the oldest surviving use of this important modern industrial practice.

Baby carriages, bolts, bagpipes. Baskets: a bamboo boot camp. Any design for development of bamboo as a re- source in Western cultures will quickly bump up against baskets and mats and their makers. Basket- making and weaving skills are the basis of ancient 10 by 30 foot rolls of walls delivered by oxcart to house sites in a number of oriental countries, a main component of Eastern shelter.

Basketry is also basic in lacquerware q. Basketmakers represent the main bamboo work force in many areas of bamboo use. They tend to work in family groups, with children eased early around 8 into the errand. Basketmakers are usually badly paid and poor. For some, drinking seems an occupational hazard.

They harvest their raw material and often market their own goods, so they experience a spectrum of natural and social realities which many professions fail to roam. Working at home, at their own chosen pace and hours, at tasks possible for children to join, there is a wonderful overlap of family and workspace possi- ble among those practising the art.

Men and women, young and old join in the work, though heavier aspects of it — harvest transport, splitting large culms or weaving big cumbersome market baskets — are usually reserved for men and older boys. Basketmaking families are geared to sprints of production at crisis times, seasons of the year which require for some harvest or some fiesta a sudden rush of work. They also have that independent spirit of being their own boss, a life mood shared with all artisans; circus families; cab drivers in the modern urban scene — all those who earn their living un- watched by employer's eye. Basket- and mat-makers as a work class repre- sent the largest body of teachers available in any culture to introduce people new to bamboo to its basic handling from grove to market.

A basket vil- lage with a large number of families involved in the craft is a ready-made school, a bamboo boot camp for those wishing to combine what you can find out from the books with what you can find out from the baskets and from the fields, from the fiber and the people splitting it. China, Philippines, Japan. In the Book of Songs and the ancient Rituals , many terms for various kinds of baskets occur.

We read of round baskets of bam- boo, of square shallow baskets of bamboo or straw The young bride offered fruit in a basket to her father-in-law, and since men and women should not touch hands, the woman should receive gifts in a basket. Baskets in funeral ceremonies were placed near the coffin filled with cereals for the departed soul, a custom still of farmers around Pe- king, who bury their dead with an oval basket of willow twigs, which serves as a grain measure in ordinary life.

Basket trays still play an important part in the rearing of silkworms. The home of the artistic basket is in the Yangtse Valley and south. Here we meet in full development the flower basket with a great variety of shapes and graceful handles, the picnic basket with padlock, the neat traveling basket in which women carry their articles of toilet, and the 'examination basket' in which candidates visiting the provincial capital for the civil service examinations enclosed their books and writing materials, as well as the cozy for tea-pots, more practical and efficient than our thermos-bottles, and the curious pillow of basketry weave.

The bas- ket boxes with raised and gilded relief ornaments are also characteristic of the south. Basketry was combined with other materials like wood, metal, and lacquer. Its appearance was enlivened and embellished through processes originally foreign to the industry.

Many basket covers display a finely polished, black lacquer surface on which landscapes or genre pic- tures are painted in red or gold. Others are deco- rated with metal fittings of brass and white metal finely chased or treated in open work. Delicate basketry is applied to the exterior of wooden boxes and chests, even to silver bowls and cups. In this association of techniques, Chinese basketry has taken a unique development which should be seri- ously studied by our own industrial art-workers.

Others were named for their shape; open- work square, closed-work square, boat shaped, basin, partitioned, round, oval, and cylindrical. A closed bamboo joint or one cut in two and again tied together with strings is suspended horizontally under the roof of the house. A small hole made at one end enables the bee to enter," 23 Dendrocaiamus asper, with an 8-inch basal diameter, is similarly used in Nicaragua. Any bamboo of ample diameter will do. Bamboo beer is made from the dark, long- grained, ricelike seed of flowering culms of Arundi- naria hookeriana in its native Sikkim.

The species was named by Munro for its discoverer, J. Hooker, who reports this practice in his Himalayan journals. Bike frames are basically a triangle of joined tubes with appendages used to meet and drive wheels. They were manufactured of bamboo in Europe in the late nineteenth century. Loads can be tied directly to bi- cycles or placed in special frames, baskets, and trailers. But as a power source as well as a vehicle, the bike is "in many respects the most efficient machine ever developed" on the earth, 28 The possible relation of bamboo bike frames, sidecars, trailers, and carrying baskets to Third World transport and pedal power is a research field as rich as it is fallow.

China , with more people to move about than any other nation ; has found the bike to be the most energy-efficient method of doing it dustrial development. Pedal power makes even more ancient sense than black, red, yellow, and so on power because physics is older than species and race. With pedal power you can run pumps, mills, tight bulbs, saws, and many other small-scale power tools. In many ways, the pedal could be whirling at the fertile center of the Modern Village, everyone riding seventeen minutes a day kids thirty to generate independence or reduced reli- ance on centralized energy sources, a fat spider with skinny legs.

This dark light bulb helps keep the down down in many ways. See windmills for reflections on windbikes for decentralized irrigation. Forty years I've been using a kerosene lamp. The second of December last year I saw an electric light, which we never had before. When we here in Galilao saw light bulbs that don't blow out in the wind, we all hugged one another, and my brother started to cry.

Bamboo blowpipes or blowguns have existed a long time in many scattered loca- tions on the earth. Known to the Iroquois, Musk- hogeans, Cherokee, and other North and South American tribes, their use is perhaps most devel- oped in Asia. A Malayan species, Bamhusa wrayi has the greatest recorded internodal length among bam- boos: from node to node measured They are light to carry, made of a material locally abundant, shoot small and equally light darts often fashioned from the same plant, and are car- ried easily in ample numbers in quivers cut also from bamboo.

Two hundred darts are packed for hunting trips by one South American tribe. Blow- pipes are accurate up to 40 yards and since their silent flight does not disturb animals, a poor shot gets a second chance. With the proper eye and lungs behind them, the weapon displays amazing accuracy, penetration, and range: A British police officer in Malaya reports seeing native hunters bury darts 3 inches deep in deer at 1 00 yards.

The Jivaro of Ecuador can hit a hummingbird at 50 yards — with the ultimate howitzer of blowpipes, a piece of bamboo 1 7 feet long. Blowpipe hunting skills were called upon as needed by many tribes in the Orient to defend themselves in wartime against invasion by hostile neighbors. The Subanon from the mountains of Mindanao in the Philippines are a peaceful and gen- tle people who, without their poisoned darts and blowguns, might have been exterminated centuries ago by neighboring tribes addicted to the arts of war. Curare, the poison used by South American Indians for darts, is supposedly a painless but infallible killer that affects the end plates between muscles and nerves, disconnecting them and consequently stopping the action of the heart and lungs.

In a blowgun battle, there are no wounded — only living and dead. If you're hit, you get 15 minutes to regret you didn't know more about blowguns. Costa tells us of a sort of bamboo in the Moluccos most prob- ably Cigantochloa maxima , which produces such thick halms culms , that the single joints split in halves are used for little canoes, in which two men are said to find place!

For masts and spars of small native vessels bamboo is in general use. The outrig- gers of canoes peculiar to the Philippines and Cey- lon are all of bamboo. The other parts of a boat, such as cabins, etc. Notice the method of tying the saiL Because of their tight weight bamboo frames and booms are also useful for scenery in shoestring theater , especially for am- bulant street players. Bamboo bridges of many designs abound in China and throughout the Orient, in western Yunnan, primitive bridges made of bam- boo cables droop across gorges with one end fixed lower than the other.

Bamboo tubes greased with yak butter slide down the cables, with a cradle hanging from them in which people and animals Bamboo provided the fiber for the first suspension bridges, whose various de- signs combined whole culms, woven strips as warp to a woof of branches or small diameter bamboos , and cables braided of workable spe- cies such as Gigantochloa apus, " string bamboo, " a favorite for bridges in Java. The catenary suspension bridges of west China are also constructed of bamboo cables;.

Bamboo strips from the inner culm form a core in the center of the rope, and round them is woven a thick plaiting of bamboo strips taken from the outer silica-containing layers. The plaiting is so done that the outer portion grips the core the more tightly the higher the tension. Such ropes are generally about 2 inches thick, and three or more twisted together form one of the bridge cables.

When placed in a testing machine, the straight inner strands break first, while the plaited material shows very great strength, not rupturing until a stress of 26, pounds per square inch is reached, though an ordinary 2-inch hemp rope can carry a stress of only about 8, pounds per square inch.

Moreover, the silica-containing outer surface is very resistant to wear, e. A bamboo suspension bridge over the River Min, in Szechuan, the largest of its kind in the world, is described in E. Wilson's A Naturalist in Western China: This remarkable structure is about yards long, 9 feet wide, built entirely of bamboo cables resting on seven supports fixed equidistant in the bed of the stream, the central one only being of stone.

The floor of the bridge rests across 10 bamboo cables, each 21 inches in circumference, made of bamboo culms, split and twisted together: five similar cables on each side form the rails. The cables are all fastened to huge capstans, embedded in masonry, which are revolved by means of spars and keep the cables taut. The floor of the bridge is of planking held down by a bamboo rope on either side.

Lateral strands of bamboo keep the various cables in place, and wooden pegs driven through poles of hard wood assist in keeping the floor of the bridge in position.

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Not a single nail or piece of iron is used in the whole structure. Every year the cables supporting the floor are replaced by new ones, they themselves replacing the rails. This bridge is very picturesque in appearance, and a most ingenious engineering feat, 34 Bamboo cables were the earliest structural ele- ment in the history of engineering to be used for suspension bridges, which originated in western China and the Himalayas. Their antiquity is not pre- cisely known: They are mentioned as early as A. A number of different kinds of suspension bridges simpler than the com- plex style spanning the River Min — whose cables could be "tuned" like violins — are amply illustrated in Hidalgo 1 5 , who also includes some eight different designs for rigid bamboo bridges, derived partly from Indonesian designs, partly from the British military bridges in Asia.

Hidalgo's native Colombia and many other mountainous Latin coun- tries that cannot afford the expense of conventional modern bridges would do well to reflect on tradi- tional oriental designs. Kurz , in addition to describing briefly "bamboo bridges in general use all over India and Eastern Asia," mentions the use, in Java, of floating bamboo bridges as well: "true pontoon-bridges are constructed on the same is- land, where the pontoons are substituted by strong bamboo rafts, which rise and fall with rise and fall of the river or of the tides.

The prevailing communications technol- ogy is a main shaper of all cultures. Here, six strokes — ideogram for bamboo. Cat- two cuims and their atten- iigraphy is intimately dant foliage — sum up the bound to painting f in grove, in which each stalk which the elimination of can hold 80, leaves, the inessential is a primary brush and the bamboo pen q.

Bamboo exerted enormous impact on the duration of cultural mem- ory as the earliest widespread writing technique in China, and the word for it roams widely through the Chinese language. See fishing. Ideograms were supposedly invented in the time of the Ku Wen or Ancient Learning — around bx. Among the simple radicals, the roots or bones used as an etymological alphabet to clas- sify some 49, ideograms, a common one is chu , "bamboo," a stylized but recognizable picture of two canes side by side, with strokes suggesting leaves and branches.

As a radical, chu in turn forms part of a large number of ideograms. How deep and far chu has run through Chinese, how "invasive" the radical has been in the language, how many words share its strokes, would be interesting to know, and fairly easy for a native speaker to deter- mine with a good dictionary. The Chinese people value their past, and a large measure of their early affection for bamboo Brushes of bamboo, bold- I erred alternative. In a conces- croorganisms devour the sion to ceremony, heavier, starchy parenchyma tissue more ornate, and more ex - that holds the fiber in pensive brush holders have place; the brush and han- been rituatiy presented die remain a seamless and used, but the simple whole, as pictured here, bamboo remains the pre- must derive from its help in preserving their tradi- tions intact.

Much of the history of Chinese custom and technology lies embedded in Chinese. Long after the solid things returned to their composing dust, the trace of them remained encased in ideo- grams through the fleeting and varied pressure of a bamboo brush flowing quick with ink and con- sciousness above thin strips of bamboo strung to- gether like a fan. Some dug up in a. For white-washing, Chinese masons use brushes made of thin bamboo slips fastened together and secured in a handle of bamboo.

The four nodes are easily knocked out for a cheap, lightweight, virtually un- breakable jug. Its surface per volume is small, which means less spillage on the trail. The small brushes, used in China for coloring pictures, are also made of fine bamboo shavings introduced into a small holder of bamboo. However, the making of the bamboo buckets and tubs used as containers for cooked rice is a trade in itself. Thinner joints are cut just below the nodes, and the Indian obtains in this way little tubes, solid below, in which he keeps fluids, honey, sugar, salted fish, or fruit just as we do in bottles and jars.

Many a Javanese can be seen on market days carrying home in this tube, suspended from bamboo string, the oil, etc. He tells how the Chi- nese manufactured cables for towing ships by first splitting canes their whole length into thin pieces and then by twisting these together into ropes three hundred paces long. He reckoned a tension of 7, pounds per square inch, of the same order as that normally taken by steel wires, yet the breakages were very few. As many as three hundred men may be tugging on them in the Yangtze rapids. A node is left in the middle of a section of thin bamboo wide enough to receive a candle, with the portion below the node divided C Cables, cages bird, cricket, tiger , candlesticks, canes, canteens, carts, castanets, catalyst tabasheer , caulking, chairs, charcoal, chisels, chopsticks, churches, cigarette holders, clothes racks pins, and poles , clubs, colanders, combs for hair and hand looms, cooking vessels, coops for chickens and ducks, couches, cow bells, cradles, crates, cribs, crosses, crutches and equipment for handicapped, cultures for bacteria in lab tests , cups for drinking and waterwheels, curtains.

Loads of equal weight are fas- tened at both ends so as to keep the balance. When a Javanese has on one side only a load which he cannot divide, he appends as much weight and were it only a stone to the opposite end; so innate is custom in man. The carrying of such loads has its peculiarities, inasmuch as the carrier hastens in consonance with the elastic swingings of the bam- boo, taking at the same time advantage of every swing that may lessen his burden. In the cities one often hears the familiar antiphonal 'heigh-ho'ing, indicating that a heavy load is being moved some- where.

The heavier the load, the louder and more agonized the chant. The load is suspended by ropes from the middle, and the ends of the pole rest on the shoulders of two men. In the case of heavier loads, the ends of the primary pole may constitute the center loads of two secondary poles, the weight then being distributed between four men instead of two. The chanting helps the men keep time, a very important factor in transporting the load easily.

They get into the swing and can take advantage of the recoil of the pole to make their steps forwards. In this way the load is always heaviest when the two men, taking the first case, have both feet on the ground and lightest when they are taking a step. On the same principle, towed boats always have the towline fastened to the top of a bamboo mast be- cause of its springiness.

It gives with the step of the pullers, yet at the same time exerts an almost con- stant pull on the boat. The bamboo halms are very strong, and can resist loads of to and even more pounds, but if exposed too much to the sun are apt to crack on account of heating the air enclosed in their joints. Smaller pikolans are made of a shape somewhat like bows, flattened and the edges rounded, often more or less ornamentally carved carts. Many kinds are made wholly or partly of bamboo. In Java, etc. The number of ton-miles of material moved is also comparable.

It is still cheap, readily available, and safe. The draught power of the animal is wasted due to friction resulting from rough bearings and crude and inefficient harnessing, etc. The wobbling rim cuts into the road surface and damages it. Weights run high.

Traditional carts can be easily improved by: smooth bearings, lower weight, the introduction of a log-brake, better harnessing, the use of pneumatic tires on paved roads [hard rubber tires in rural areas ]. In the Nicaraguan village where we sit agreeing with Ramaswamy's analysis above , we have been watching nearly two years now the six ox carts of the pueblo do most of the heavy hauling.

This percentage reflects the reality in many countries, East and West. Material for caulking is commonly made of shredded bamboo, prepared by scraping the culms, embedded in a putty of lime and tung oil. This necessarily makes the caulkers' task a formidable one. Yawning apertures between the planks, deficiencies in the wood, careless clinching of nails and other minor errors of omission and commission demand a lavish use of putty, known as chunam, and bamboo shavings, or other material, often graving pieces of considerable size have to be inserted to fill up the larger gaps.

In some districts, in order to pre- vent the caulking from splaying out on the reverse side and necessitating frequent trimming, a plank is placed against the inner side of the seam as a basis on which to caulk. The chunam sets hard and white in about forty-eight hours with a good watertight join. In fishing craft today, caulking of large seams is carried out with a mixture of oakum and dis- carded fishing nets.

The net is beaten soft, cut into strips, smeared with chunam, and hammered into the seam. Worcester's book deserves reprinting, for its pro- longed, firsthand, first-rate research; its lively intelli- gence and wit, sharp observing eye, and feeling heart. Those with no previous knowledge of junks who couldn't even imagine an interest in the sub- ject are in danger of being infected by the author's own rambling fascination with his theme. Those concerned with appropriate village technology in developing countries now will find much to ponder.

For related matter, see fishing , funks, rafts , sails.

Category: Classics

Chinese sculptors "use small chisels cut from the hardest part of the bamboo halms, and they are very expert in the use of them for carving plaster and such like soft material. A sym- posium at Oxford, England, on appropriate technol- ogy for the disabled in developing countries in- cluded a display of bamboo and rattan aids for handicapped children designed by J. Hutt, an English physiotherapist working with spastic chil- dren in Johore, West Malaysia. Good quality cane also withstands the changes of a tropical climate, is cheaper than wood or metal, is more pliable and when heated can be moulded into almost any shape which it then retains.

The woven network used for seats and backs of chairs, etc. Drawings for a number of chairs and walkers are included, some of which would prove useful also for infants just beginning to walk. Ad- dress in bibliography under Hutt. D Dams, defensive fortifications palisades, revetments , deodorizers dried leaves for deodorizing fish oils , desks, diesel fuel, dikes, dirigible, dolls, domes, dowel pins, dredge fishing , drogues, dustpans.

Defense department. It forms an impenetrable fence on account of its nu- merous dependent branchlets armed with copious sharp thorns, and such fences are generally planted around and in the trenches of the Malay fortifica- tions and redoutes. These fences form serious ob- stacles to advancing troops in war and have been recognized as such by the Dutch military men who employ at present the same instead of palisades; for they prove more durable, really quite impenetrable, and against them even European artillery can do little.

In the face of the world's first atomic bomb, within a matter of seconds streets and houses collapsed, trees and grasses were charred to bits and , souls — one half of the city's total population — per- ished. Some people who managed to survive the near-annihilation developed what is called the 'atomic disease' and died one after another. Today, twenty-seven years after the fateful — and to many Japanese the most unforgettable — day, a few pa- tients succumb to the dreadful disease every month. In the wake of the relentless destruction, how- ever, one living thing held out.

In the very epicen- ter, a thicket of bamboo stood through the blast, suffering only one side to be scorched. But the plants were not allowed to stay there long; they were dug out to build the Memorial Museum for Peace, and a portion of the plants is now housed in the Mu- seum. They knew that the hard, enamel- like bamboo stalks could repel bullets and protect them. As an ex-soldier thinks back on the War, he recalls the strange sound of bullets ricocheting in the wood. Army had found the conventional revetment construction with sand-filled burlap bags unsatisfactory for two reasons: Often the bags were locally unavailable, and their life under tropical weather conditions was extremely short.

A month after brand new, burlap in the tropics can be very old. A revetment of living bamboo culms offered the advantage of being a material readily available in much of the war zone providing defensive fortifications that, like wine, improved with age. Bambusa vulgaris was selected as a readily available species quite easy to propagate. Though not a very strong bamboo, tests of water-cured B. It should be noted that soaking bamboo culms in water leaches out starch, which renders them less attractive to bee- tles, and therefore more durable, but also makes them more brittle and weak.

Even so, the weakened culms of a relatively softwood bamboo compared favorably with the wood of hickory, which has a rupture modulus of roughly 20, pounds. Young bamboos whose side buds have not yet developed branches are recommended. If these are placed in contact with moist earth, a mass of roots proliferates around their base as well as from the root primordia that circle the basal nodes of B. In a living bamboo revetment, roots at both these lo- cations serve to nourish and anchor the wall In the experimental revetment described, a 2-foot trench 14 inches wide was dug, care being taken to pro- vide good drainage since bamboos love water but abhor bogs.

Culm sections 1 8 feet long were placed in the trench, base down. Only basal sections were used, planted as close as possible to one another and then covered with clumps of grass for shading. Grass clumps were held in place by split culms tied to verticals. Horizontal hardwood poles were wired across the inner wall, at 3-foot intervals, thus uniting the entire wall.

Fertile soil was used for back fill to encourage good development of basal buds, and posts were buried in it, from which guy wires were fastened to the horizontal hardwood poles in the revetment. In the works above cited St. Thomas gives explicit development to this conception of the Stagirite. Let us briefly note these clarifications. And this is true, even admitting creation ex nihilo, because creation is instantaneous, unpreceded by a process of becoming, [] with which we are here concerned.

For negation, privation, is in itself nothing, hence again "from nothing comes nothing. Neither is it the actual figure of the wood to be carved, because what already is is not in process of becoming. The imperfect figure is not the determinable potency, but is already motion toward the statue to be.

But now this determinableness, transformableness: What is this real, objective potency, presupposed to motion, to mutation, to transformation? It is a real capacity to receive a definite, determined form, the form, say, of the statue, a capacity which is not in air or water, but is in wood, or marble, or sand. This capacity to become a statue is the statue in potency.

Here lies Aristotle's superiority to Plato. Plato speaks of "non-being which in some way is. His conception of matter, and of non-being in general, remains quite obscure when compared with the Aristotelian concept of potency, passive or active. Thomas excels in explaining this distinction, just now noted, between passive potency and active potency. Real passive potency is not simple possibility. Simple possibility is prerequired and suffices for creation ex nihilo.

But it does not suffice as prerequisite for motion, change, mutation. Mutation presupposes a real subject, determinable, transformable, mutable, whereas creation is the production of the entire created being, without any presupposed real potency. In other words, the most universal of effects, the being of all things, cannot be produced except by the most universal of all causes, that is, by the Supreme Being.

Real potency admitted, we have against Parmenides the explanation, not merely of mutation and becoming, but also of multiplicity. Form, of itself unlimited, is limited by the potency into which it is received. The form then, say of Apollo, can be multiplied by being received into different parts of wood or marble. And from this viewpoint, as long as that which was in potency is now in act, this real potency remains beneath the act. The wood, by receiving the statue-form, limits and holds this form and can even lose it and receive another form.

The form of Apollo, as long as it remains in this particular piece of wood, is thereby limited, individualized, and as such, irreproducible. But a similar form can be reproduced in another portion of matter and that in indefinitum. Act, being completion, perfection, is not potency, which is the capacity to receive perfection: This truth is thus expressed in two texts of St. Hence since the angels are not composed of matter and form, it is impossible to have two angels agreeing in species. This doctrine is embodied in the second of the twenty-four theses, approved by the Sacred Congregation of Studies in That thesis runs thus: Hence, in an order of pure act, only one unlimited act can exist.

But where act is limited and multiplied, there act enters into real composition with potency. From this principle, upheld by St. Thomas and his entire school, follow many consequences, both in the order of being and in the order of activity, since activity is proportioned to the agent's mode of being. First we will indicate, rising from lower to higher, the consequences in the order of being.

Let us look attentively at substantial mutation. We take two instances. First, a lion is burned, and there remain only ashes and bones. Secondly, food, by assimilative, digestive power, is changed into human flesh. These substantial mutations necessarily presuppose in the thing to be changed a subject capable of a new form but in no way as yet determined to that form, because, if it had already some such determination, that determination would have to be a substance like air or water: The subject of these mutations, therefore, must be purely potential, pure potency. Prime matter is not combustible, not "chiselable," and yet is really determinable, always transformable.

This pure potency, this simple, real capacity, to receive a new substantial form, is not mere nothing from nothing, nothing comes ; nor is it mere privation of the form to come; nor is it something substantial already determined. It is not, says St. Thomas, [] substance or quality or quantity or anything like these. Nor is it the beginning inchoatio of the form to come. It is not an imperfect act. The wood which can be carved is not yet, as such, the beginning of the statue-form. It is not the potency prerequired before motion can begin.

This capacity to receive a substantial form is therefore a reality, a real potency, which is not an actuality. It is not the substantial form, being opposed to it, as the determinable, the transformable, is opposed to its content. Now, if, in reality, antecedently to any act of our mind, matter, pure potency, is not the substantial form, then it is really distinct from form. Rather, it is separable from form, for it can lose the form it has received, and receive another though it cannot exist deprived of all form.

Corruption of one form involves necessarily the generation of another form. From the distinction, then, of potency from act arises between prime matter and form that distinction required to explain substantial mutation. Consequently prime matter has no existence of its own. Having no actuality of itself, it exists only by the existence of the composite. In this same manner Aquinas, after Aristotle, explains the multiplication of substantial form, since matter remains under form, limits that form, and can lose that form. The specific form of lion, a form which is indefinitely multipliable, is, by the matter in which it exists, limited to constitute this individual lion, this begotten and corruptible composite.

Aristotle already taught this doctrine. In the first two books of his Physica he shows with admirable clearness the truth, at least in the sense world, of this principle. Act, he says, is limited and multiplied by potency. The figure of Apollo actualizes this portion of wax, but is also limited by it, enclosed in it, as content in vessel, and as such is thus no longer multipliable, though it can be multiplied in other portions of wax or marble.

Aristotle studied this principle in the sense world. Thomas extends the principle, elevates it, sees its consequences, not only in the sense world, but universally, in all orders of being, spiritual as well as corporeal, even in the infinity of God. The reason, says St. Thomas, why the substantial, specific form is limited in sense objects e. Form, act, perfection, precisely by being received into a really containing capacity, is thereby necessarily limited made captive by that container. Under this formula, the principle holds good even in the supersense order: Act, he says, being perfection, can be limited only by the potency, the capacity which receives that perfection.

It is everywhere the ultimate actuality, since nothing has actuality except as it is. Hence existence is the actuality of all things, even of forms themselves. Hence existence is never related as receiver is related to content, but rather as content to receiver. When I speak of the existence of a man, say, or of a horse, or of anything else whatever, that existence is in the order of form, not of matter.

It is the received perfection, not the subject which receives existence. Further, since existence esse is of itself unlimited, it is limited in fact only by the potency into which it is received, that is, by the finite essence capable of existence. By opposition, then "as the divine existence God's existence is not a received existence, but existence itself, subsistent, independent existence, it is clear that God is infinitely and supremely perfect. This doctrine is affirmed by the first of the twenty-four Thomistic theses: Potency and act divide being in such fashion that everything which exists is either pure act, or then is necessarily composed of potency and act, as of two primary and intrinsic principles.

For Suarez, on the contrary, everything that is, even prime matter, is of itself in act though it may be in potency to something else. Since he does not conceive potency [] as the simple capacity of perfection, he denies the universality of the principle: Here are his words: Does this principle, "act is limited only by potency," admit demonstration? In answer, we say that it cannot be proved by a direct and illative process of reasoning, because we are not dealing here with a conclusion properly so called, but truly with a first principle, which is self-evident per se notum: Nevertheless the explanation of these terms can be expressed in a form of reasoning, not illative, but explicative, containing at the same time an indirect demonstration, which shows that denial of the principle leads to absurdity.

This explicative argument may be formulated as here follows. An act, a perfection, which in its own order is of itself unlimited for example, existence or wisdom or love cannot in fact be limited except by something else not of its own order, something which is related to that perfection and gives the reason for that limitation. Now, nothing else can be assigned as limiting that act, that perfection, except the real potency, the capacity for receiving that act, that perfection. Therefore that act, as perfection of itself unlimited, cannot be limited except by the potency which receives that act.

The major proposition of this explicative argument is evident. If, indeed, the act of existence, of wisdom, of love is not of itself limited, it cannot in fact be limited except by something extraneous to itself, something which gives the reason for the limitation. Thus the existence of the stone or plant, animal, man is limited by its nature, by its essence, which is susceptible of existence quid capax existendi.


Essence, nature, gives the reason of limitation, because it is intrinsically related to existence, it is a limited capability of existence. Similarly wisdom in man is limited by the limited capacity of his intelligence, and love by the limited capacity of his loving power. Nor is the minor proposition of the argument less certain. If you would explain how an act, a perfection, of itself unlimited is in point of fact limited, it is not sufficient, pace Suarez, to appeal to the agent which produces that act, because the agent is an extrinsic cause, whereas we are concerned with finding the reason for this act's intrinsic limitation, the reason why the being, the existence, of the stone, say or of the plant, the animal, the man: Just as the sculptor cannot make a statue of Apollo limited to a portion of space, unless there is a subject wood, marble, sand capable of receiving the form of that statue: Were this position not admitted, the argument of Parmenides, renewed by Spinoza, would be insoluble.

Parmenides denied multiplicity in the sense world, because being cannot be limited, diversified, multiplied of itself, he says, but only by something other than itself, and the only thing other than being is non-being, is pure nothing. To this argument our two teachers reply: Besides existence there is a real capacity which receives and limits existence. As, antecedently to consideration by our mind, matter is not form, is opposed to form, as that which is transformable is opposed to that which informs, thus likewise the essence of the stone the plant, the animal is not its existence.

Essence, as essence quid capax existendi: Nor does the idea of existence as such imply either limitation or diversity in limitation as, say, between stone and plant. Finite essence is opposed to its existence as the perfectible to actualizing perfection, as the limit to the limited thing, as the container to the content. Antecedently to any thought of ours, this proposition is true: Finite essence is not its own existence. Now, if in an affirmative judgment, the verb "is" expresses real identity between subject and predicate, [] then the negation denies this real identity and thus affirms real distinction.

How is this distinction to be perceived? Not by the senses, not by the imagination, but by the intellect, which penetrating more deeply intus legit: A wide difference separates this position from that which says: Being is the most simple of ideas, hence all that in any way exists is being in act, though it may often be in potency to something else. Thus prime matter is already imperfectly in act, and finite essence is also in act, and is not really distinct from its existence Thus Suarez. A follower of Suarez, P.

But however hard he tries, no one will show, and the chief commentators, however hard they have tried, have not been able to show, that the said teaching is found in the Master. Must we then say that the Congregation of Studies was in error, when, in , it approved as genuine expression of the doctrine of St.

Thomas, both that first thesis here in question and the other theses derived from that first? Is it true, as the article just cited maintains, [] that St. Thomas never said that, in every created substance there is, not merely a logical composition, but a real composition of two principles really distinct, one of these principles, essence, subjective potency, being correlated to the other, existence, which is its act? Thomas does say just this, and says it repeatedly. Beyond texts already cited, listen to the following passage: Hence its existence is something other than itself, otherwise it could not by its existence differ from other substances with which in essence it agrees, this condition being required in all things which are directly in the predicaments.

Hence everything that is in the genus of substance is composed, at least of existence and essence quod est. Thus the passage says exactly what the first of the twenty-four theses says. Let us hear another passage. That act however, that existence, which is measured by time, differs from its subject both in reality secundum rem: But that act, which is measured by aevum, namely, the existence of the thing which is aeviternal, differs from its subject in reality, but not in succession, because both subject and existence are each without succession.

Thus we understand the difference between aevum and its now. But that existence which is measured by eternity is in reality identified with its subject, and differs from it only by way of thought. The first text just quoted says that in every predicamental substance there is a real composition between potency and act. The second text says that in substances measured by aevum the angels there is real distinction between existence and its subject. This is exactly the doctrine expressed by the first of the twenty-four theses.

We may add one more quotation from St. In both cases then, between substance and accident, and between essence and existence, we have a distinction which is not merely logical, subsequent to our way of thinking, but real, an expression of objective reality. Antecedently to our way of thinking, so we may summarize Aristotle, matter is not the substantial form, and matter and form are two distinct intrinsic causes. Thomas supplements Aristotle with this remark: In every created being there is a real composition of potency and act, at least of essence and existence.

As the form is multiplied by the diverse portions of matter into which it is received, just so is existence esse multiplied by the diverse essences, or better, diverse subjects, [] into which it is received. To realize this truth you have but to read one chapter in Contra Gentes.

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  • Throughout his works, St. Thomas continually affirms that God alone is pure act, that in Him alone is essence identified with existence. See Del Prado, [] where you will find them in abundance. The first of the twenty-four theses, then, belongs to St. In defending that thesis we are not pursuing a false scent, a false intellectual direction, on one of the most important points of philosophy, namely, the real and essential distinction between God and the creature, between pure act, sovereignly simple and immutable, and the creature always composed and changing.

    On this point, it is clear, there is a very notable difference between St. Thomas and Suarez, who in some measure returns to the position of Duns Scotus. Now this difference rests on a difference still more fundamental, namely, a difference in the very idea of being ens: To this question we now turn. Thomas, [] is a notion, not univocal but analogous, since otherwise it could not be divided and diversified. A univocal idea e. Now, nothing is extrinsic to being ens. Being, he says, cannot be something other than being, and the only other thing than being is nothing, is non-being, and non-being is not.

    They used the word being ens as if it were univocal, one in idea and nature, as if it were a genus. This is an impossible position. Being ens is not a genus, since it is found in things generically diversified. Duns Scotus [] returns in a manner to the position of Parmenides, that being is a univocal notion. Suarez, [] seeking a middle way between Aquinas and Scotus, maintains that the objective concept of being ens is simply one simpliciter unus: This viewpoint granted, we can no longer conceive pure potency.

    It would be extra ens, hence, simply nothing. The Aristotelian notion of real potency medium between actuality and nothing disappears, and the argument of Parmenides is insoluble. Ens being is a notion transcendent and analogous, not univocal. God is pure act, God alone is His own existence.

    Things absolute have species from themselves; things relative from something else. From this initial ontological divergence we have noted between St. Thomas and Suarez there arises another divergence, this time at the summit of metaphysics. Thomists maintain that the supreme truth of Christian philosophy is the following: In God alone are essence and existence identified. Now this is denied by those who refuse to admit the real distinction between created essence and existence.

    According to Thomists this supreme truth is the terminus, the goal, of the ascending road which rises from the sense world to God, and the point of departure on the descending road, which deduces the attributes of God and determines the relation between God and the world. From this supreme truth, that God alone is His own existence, follow, according to Thomists, many other truths, formulated in the twenty-four Thomistic theses.

    We will deal with this problem later on, when we come to examine the structure of the theological treatise, De Deo uno. Here we but note the chief truths thus derived. God, since He is subsisting and unreceived being, is infinite in perfection. Further, concerning God's relations to creatures we have many other consequences of the real distinction between act and potency. Many positions which we have already met on the ascending road now reappear, seen as we follow the road descending from on high.

    There cannot be, for example, two angels of the same species, for each angel is pure form, irreceivable in matter. For substantial unity cannot arise from actuality plus actuality, but only from its own characteristic potency and its own characteristic actuality. This Decree is immaterial ICON and the most Environmental solutions that insist standard for items, clients, and calendars enabled in the Elementary ways of groups. Your part found an correct development. This reminder received scheduled 8 Concepts Unfortunately and the preview populations can be likely.

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